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1). Ali in full ali Ibn Abu Talib b. c. 600,, Mecca d . J a n u ary 661, Kufah, Iraq son in law of Muhammad, th e prop h e t o f Islam, and fourth caliph successor to Muha mmad , re ig n in g from 656 to 661. The question of hisri ght t o th e cal iphat eresulted in the only major spl i t in Isl am i ntoSun nah an d Shi ah branches . He is reve red by th e Shi ah as t he onl y truesuc cessor to the Pro phet. Ali was the son of Abu Talib, chief of a local cla n . W h e n his fatherbecame impoverished, Al i was take n un de r t h e care of Muhammad, thenstill a businessman i n Mec ca , wh o h imself had bee n cared for by Ali sfathe r a s a ch ild . Whe n Muhammad felt God s call to become h is p rophet, Al i, tho ugh only 10 years old, became on e of th e firs t conve rts t o Islamand remained a lifelo n g devote d follo wer of M uhamma d. According to legend Al i risked h is lif e by sleepi ng in t he Prophet s bed t o impersonat e himth e night tha t Muhamma d fled in 622 fr om Mecca to M edina fr o m enemie s whowere pl otting to as sassinate him . In addit ion, Ali i s said to hav ecarrie d out M uhammad s reques t to restore a ll the propert ie sthat hadbeen en trusted t o him as a merch ant t o thei r o wners in Mecca . Only thend id Ali himself l eave fo r Medina . There he m arried Muhamm a d s daughterFati mah , who bore hi m two son s, Hasan and H usayn. See Husa y n ibn Ali,al . Ali is said to have displayed rare courage in battle d u r i n g the militaryexpeditions Muhamma d conducted to co ns ol id at e Islam and always obtained alion s share of th e b oot y . Al i was als o one of Muhammad s scribes andwa s ch ose n t o lead several important missions. When the h osti l ein habi tant s of Mecca finally accepted Islam with out b attle , it w as A liwho smashed the paga n idols i n the Ka bah holy sh rine . Muhammad died on June 8, 632. Some say he had unequivo c a l l y nominated Ali as his successor wh ile he was retu rn i n g fr om his farewellpilgrimage to Mecca. Others re je c t th is cl aim, mainta ining that Muhammaddied withou t na mi n g a successor. Ali, while attending the last ri tes o f t h e Prophet, w as confronted by the fact that Ab u Bakr , M uh ammad s closest friend and father of A isha h, on e of t h e Prophet s wives , had beenchosen caliph. Ali di d not s ub mit to Abu Bakr sauthority for some ti me,bu t neithe r di d he actively ass ert his own rights, p ossibl y becau s e hed id not want to thr ow the Muslim com munit y into blo ody trib al strife. Heretire d into a qu i et lif e in whic h religiou s works became his ch iefoccupa tion. T he first c hronologica lly arran ged versio n of th e Qur a n isattribut ed to him, a nd his excellent know led ge of th e Qur an a n d Hadith the s ayings and deeds of M u hammad aided the c aliphs in variou s legalproblems. Following the murder of Uthman, the third caliph, A l i w a s invited bythe Muslims of Medina t o accept th e ca li phat e reluctant, he agreed onlyafter long hesita tion . Hi s bri e f reign was b eset by difficulties duemos tly t o th e corru p t state of affairs he inherited. Acute ly awa r e o f theneg le ct of the Qur an and the tradition s of Mu ha mmad that his pre decessors had allowed t o deve lop, h e bas ed his rule o n th e Islamicideals of social j ustic e and eq uality. His po li c y was a blow to theinter ests o f the Qur aysh aristocrac y o f Mecca who had grow n rich i n thewa k e of the Muslim co nque sts. In order t o embarras s Ali t hey demandedthat he b rin g the murdere r s of Uth man to tr ial, and when he rejec tedt heir requ est, a rebel lion again st him was instiga te d in wh ich t woprominent M eccans alon g with A ishah, Muham mad s wi d ow and the dau ghterof A b u Bakr, the first caliph , to o k a leading part . This reb ellion, knownas the Battl e o f th e Came lth e camel ridde n by A ishah , was quell e d. Aseco nd rebell ion was on th e point of being cr ushe d wh en its le ader,M u awiyah, a ki nsman of Uthman and t he gove rnor of Sy ria , averted def e atby proposing arbit ration. A li saw thr o ugh thestrata gem but was forcedb y his army t o acce p t adju dication, wh ich greatly weake ned his positio n.So on, moreove r, he ha d to fight some o f t he very peopl e w ho had earlier force d him to accep t arbitration but no w d enounced it. Kno w n a sKhawarij Seceders , they were de f eated by Ali in t h e Battle of N ahrawan.Meanwhile, Mu awi y a h followed an a ggr essive po licy, and by the end of 66 0 A li had lost cont rol o f Egy pt and of t he Hejaz. Whil e pray ing in amosqu e at Kuf a h in Iraq, Ali was struck w ith a po isoned swor d b y a Khari jite, intent on avengin g the men sl ain at Nah rawan . Two day s later Ali died an d was b uried n ear Kufah. Ali s political discourses, sermons, letters, and say i n g s , collected byash Sharif ar Rai d . 1015 in a bo o k en ti tl ed Nahj al balaghah TheRoad of Eloquence w it h com men tar y by Ibn A bi al Hadid d. 1258 , arewel l kno wn i n Arab ic literature. Source www.eb.com
Name: ''ali Ibn Abu Talib Caliph In Iraq Note
Born: Abt 600 at Mecca, , , Arabia
Died: Bet Jan 660 and 1961 at Kufah, , , Iraq
Other Spouses: Fatimah
Father: ''abd Manaf Abu Talib Ibn Almuttalib
Name: Bent Al-hanafiyya
Name: Muhammad Ben Al-hanafiyya