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Family Sheet

Name: `abd Al-rahman Iii Al-nasir Emir Of Cordoba Note Born: Bet Jan 888 and 1989 Married: Died: 15 Oct 961 at Cordoba, , , Spain Father: Muhammad Ii Of Cordoba Mother: Mary
Name: Born: Died: Father: Mother:
Name: ''abd Al-jabbar Born: (suppressed / living) Died:
Name: Al-hakam Ii Al-mustansir Caliph Of Cordoba Born: Died: 976 at Spain, , , Wife: Nn (a Basque)
Name: Sulayman Born: (suppressed / living) Died:
Name: Sulayman Of Cordoba Born: (suppressed / living) Died:
Name: Ubayd Allah Born: (suppressed / living) Died:
Name: Ubayd Allah Of Cordoba Born: (suppressed / living) Died:
Name: `abd Al-jabbar Born: (suppressed / living) Died:
Name: `abd Al-malik Born: (suppressed / living) Died:
Name: Emir ''abd Allah I Of Cordoba Born: 842 at Cordoba, , , Spain Died: 912 at Spain, , ,
1). Declared himself Caliph in 929. In 929 Abd ar Rahman III established the caliphate of C r d o b a, and thecity reached a peak of p rosperity, rival i n g Da ma scus and Baghdad in itsbrilliance and intellect u a l activ ity . The mate rial well being of Crdobadeclin e d af ter th e early 11th century as Muslim rule in Spain di sint e grated , but i t remained a center of literatur e an d scho larship . Inthe 12 th century the philos opher s Aver roës an d Maimon ides were a ctive inCórdoba. Sour ce Córd oba Spa in , Mic rosoft R En carta R 98 Ency clopedia. c 1993 19 97 Microso ft Co rporati on. All righ ts reserved . Abd ar Rah man III 889 9 61 , eig hth Umayya d ruler of Sp ain 912 61 . Succeeding to a n em irat e dimi nished by prov incial governo rs who actedli k e independen t rulers, Abd ar Rahman at on c e set out t o rea ssertUmay yad authority ove r all his terr itories h e recaptu red To ledo, thelas t o f the wayward cit ies, i n 932. In th e mea ntime, however, h e hadbuilt up a na v y unmatched an ywh er e in the world a t the time and hadwr e sted part of Moroc c o from the Fatimi ds. He also inf li cte d severaldefeat s on t he Christian ki ngdoms of Leó n and Nav arre, checkin g theirex pansion b y 929 he fel t confident e nough to as sume the tit le of cal iph. Abd a r Rahman s great est legac y was the trans formati on of Cà ³rdoba, whichin sple ndor ri valed B aghdad an d Cons tanti nople present day Ista nbul ,into the greatest c ultu ra l center in the Wes tern wo rld , a distinction ithel d f o r some 200 years. Source Abd ar Rahman III, Microso f t R Encarta R 98 Encyclopedi a . c 1993 1997 Microso f t C o rporation. All rights reser ved . Ab d ar Rah ma n III b. January 891 d. O ct. 1 5, 961, Córdob a byname AN NAS IR LI DIN ALLAH ARABI C VICT OR FOR TH E RELIGION OF A LLAH , in full ABD AR RAH MA N IB N MUHAMM AD IBN ABD ALLA H IBN MUH AMMAD IBN ABDAR RAHMAN I BN AL HAKAM AR RABI IB N HISHA M IB N ABD AR RAH MAN AD DAKH IL ,first caliphand g reatest rule r of the Uma yyad Arab Mu s lim dyn asty ofSpain . He reigned a s heredit ary amir p rinc e of Córdoba fro m October 912and t ook t h e titl e of calip h in 929. Accession as amir. Abd ar Rahman succeeded his grandfather Abd Alla h a s a m i r of Córdoba inOctober 912 at the a ge of 21 . Becau s e o f hi s intelligence and characterhe had bee n the obvi ou s fa vouri te of his g randfather, who had de signatedhi m he ir pr esumpt ive in preference to the othe r royal prin ce s . Inapp earanc e he is described as havin g been light ski nned, hand some,th ickset, and short le g ged. He appear ed t o be very s hort whe n he walkedbut w as imposing on ho rseba ck. Public homage was paid to him in Córdoba immediatel y a f t e r his accession.He set about at onc e and with gr ea t en er g y to restore the authority ofCórdoba in Spain a n auth ori t y that had be en curtailed during the latt erye ars o f th ere ign of his grandfather by a host of re bel s entr e nche d inmo untain forts throughout the land . Te n days af ter hi s access ion he hadthe head of th e f irs t rebel exhi bited i n Córdoba . Thereafter, for a sco reo r so of years , he led a lmost ann u al expeditions aga ins t the rebels,fi rst in sout hern and l ater in centra l an d eastern Spain. His greatest enemy was a crypto Christian rebel, U m a r i b n Hafsun, lordof Bobastro. Abd ar R ahman s stra te g y wa s o ne of continuous harassmentof Ibn Hafsun s fo rt s . Begin nin g with the ca mpaign of Monteleón, Abdar Rah ma n captur ed 70 forts in the provinces of Elvira, G ranad a , and Jaén al l of which had been directly or in direct l y controlled b y Ib nHafsun. In 913 Seville wa s c apture d , followed by Alg ecira s, Rayyu,Sidonia, and Carm ona. Wh e n Ibn Hafsun died i n 917 , t he rebellioncollaps ed. Hi s ch ildren were capture d or ki lled, and the centr e of th erebe llion , Bobastro, wa s finall y stormed in 92 8. In 93 3 Tole do fell aftera bitte r siege, a nd, with i t s fall , the las t Muslim centre of re sistanceto Córdo ban hegemo ny disappe ared. Campaigns against the Christians. Meanwhile, Abd ar Rahman also had to check threats f r o m t h e Christiannorth. The main dange r came from th e Ki ng do m o f Leon. An expeditioncommanded by Ordoño II , the n va ssa l ki ng of Gal icia and later king ofLeon, i nto Mu sli m terr itor y in the summer of 913, especially h is sac k o f Evora Talav era and the massacre of its Mus lim pop ulatio n, produ cedwid espread resentment i n Musli m Spain . Abd a r Rahma n decide d tocounterattack, whic h he bega n in earne st in 92 0, lea di ng the campaign ofM uez in per son. He cap tured th e forts o f Osma and San Es teban de Go rmazan d the n inflict ed a crush ing defeat o n the combine d armies of L eon andNav arre at Val dejunque r a on July 26 , 920. Four ye ars later , in the springo f 924, he led ano ther campaign i nto Navar r e and sacke d t he capital, Pamp lona. With thes e two campai gns, Ab d ar Rahm an was abl e to secur e hisfr ontiers wit h Chris tian Spain fo r the n ext seven years. Bu t the nextki ng o f Leon, Ramiro I I, w ho ascended the thro ne in 932, pr o ved aformidable adver s ary and began immedia tely to m ou n t attacks againstMusl i m territory. The encou nter betwe en t he two rulers final ly t ook place in 939, wh en, at t he so c alled ditch of Si manca s Shant Mankus , Ra mirose verely def eated th e Musl ims, an d Abd ar Rahman na rrow ly escaped wi thhis life. A fter tha t defeat Abd ar Ra hm a n resolved nev er to takep ersonal cha rge of another e x pedition. The Chris tian vict ory, however ,was not foll owe d up. When Ramiro di ed in 9 50 and civil wa r broke ou t int he Christian territ o ries , Abd ar Rahman ma de goo d his e arlier losses sothor ough ly that in 958 Sancho , e xiled ki n g of Leon, Garcia Sá nc hez, kingof Navarre, a nd his moth er, Queen Toda, all pa i d personal homa ge t o Abd ar Rahma n in Córdoba. In North Africa the policy of Abd ar Rahman was dire c t e d a gainst theFatimids in al Qayrawa n now in moder n T un is ia . In order to check theircontrol over North A fric a h e f inan ced rebel lions against them and sentnava l exp edit ion s to sack the coastal cities. The city of C euta w a sfo rtif ied i n 931 as a base of operations in No rth Afr ica. T owar d the e ndof his reign, howeve r, Fatim id powe r increa sed , and th e Fatimid generalJawhar was a ble to r epulse th e al lies o f Abd ar Rahman. The strug glewith t he Fatimid s, ho wever , was inconclusive and wa s to contin ueth rougho ut th e 10t h century. As a result of his early successes, and probably a t h i s o w n suggestion,some of his court poet s urged Ab d ar R ahm a n to adopt the title ofcaliph. He assumed tha t dig nit y i n 9 29, shortly a fter the fall ofBobastro, a nd cho se t he h onor ific title an Nasir li Din Allah H e WhoFigh t s V ictor iousl y for the Religion of God . Hi s reasons w er e,internal ly, t o enhance his prestige an d , externally , t o counter t heFati mid claim to this honou r. Significance. The consolidation of power brought great prosperity t o M u s l im Spain oneindication of which w as his buildi n g o f a m in t where pure gold and silvercoins were struc k . Ab d ar R ahm an was als o a great builder he renovat ed and ad ded con siderably to the Great Mosque at Córdob a an d t o t he royal palac e. At vast expense he built a n ew ro ya l city, Madina t az Za hra , tohouse his hou sehol d an d gov ernment. He kep t a ver y strict control overth e affa irs o f state and his c ivils e rvice, changing hi s govern orsfre quently to avoid t he growt h of local dyna sties. I n 949 h e ex ecuted hisown s on for co nspiring ag ainst him. Christian and Jewish communities flourished during hi s t o l e rant reign.His fame spread so fa r beyond his dom ain s t h a t Córdoba by the end of hisreign enjoyed almos t a s muc h f am e as Const antinople in the Mediterraneanw orld . In C órdob a he received emissaries from such dist ant ru le rs a s Ott o I of Germany and the Byzantine emper or. Cór doba wa s sai d t o havecontained 3,000 mos ques a nd more t han 100 , 000 s hop s and houses. Hisreign, the s econd long est of a ny Musli mca lip h, afforded his wis e andcourageo us polici es the fu lles t chance of developm ent. Source w


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