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1). From wikipedia http en.wikipedia.org wiki Henry VII of England Earl of Richmond Henry Tudor was the posthumous son of Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, a half brother of King Henry VI of England. His mother was Margaret Beaufort, a descendant of King Edward III through John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford. From his father, he inherited the title Earl of Richmond from his mother, his questionable claim to the throne of England. He was born in Pembroke, Wales, but grew up in exile in Brittany, having fled from the Yorkist kings of England. As he had recently committed treason by taking part in the Buckingham Rebellion and he was in 1485 compounding the crime by raising an army against the king, he knew that if he was caught in England, without disposing of the king first, he would be put to death. edit Rise to the throne After the failure of the revolt of his cousin, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Henry VII became the leading Lancastrian contender for the throne of England. Having gained the support of the in laws of the late Yorkist King Edward IV, he landed with a force in Wales and marched into England, accompanied by his uncle, Jasper Tudor. Wales had traditionally been a Yorkist stronghold, and Henry owed the support he gathered to his ancestry, being directly descended, through his father, from the Lord Rhys. He amassed an army of around 5000 soldiers and travelled north. There his Lancastrian forces decisively defeated the Yorkists under Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 when several of Richard s key allies switched sides or deserted thefield of battle. This battle effectively ended the long running Wars of the Roses between the two houses. Henry s claim to the throne was tenuous and based upon a lineage of illegitimate succession. However, this was no barrier to the Throne inheritancewas not the sole method of becoming Sovereign. Claims could also be based on nomination by the previous Sovereign , statute, prescription de facto possession of power and, as was the case with Henry VII, conquest. The first of Henry s concerns on attaining the monarchy was the question of establishing the strength and supremacy of his rule. There were few other claimants to the throne left alive after the long civil war, so his main worry was pretenders such as Perkin Warbeck, who pretended to be Richard, Duke of York, the younger of the Princes in the Tower. These pretenders were backed by disaffected nobles. Henry triumphed in securing his crown by a number of means but principally by dividing and undermining thepower of the nobility. Henry s first action was to declare himself king as of the day before the battle, thus ensuring that anyone who had fought against him would, technically, be guilty of treason. It is interesting to note, therefore, that he spared Richard s designated heir, John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln. He would have cause to regret his leniency two years later, when Lincoln rebelled and attempted to set a boy pretender, Lambert Simnel, on the throne in Henry s place. Lincoln was killed at the Battle of Stoke, but Simnel s life was spared and he became a royal servant. Simnel had been put forward as Edward VI , impersonating the young Edward, Earl of Warwick, son of George, Duke of Clarence, who was still imprisoned in the Tower of London. Henry had shown uncharacteristic leniency in dealing with Edward and did not find a pretext for executing him until he had grown into adulthood, in 1499. Edward s elder sister, Margaret Pole, who had the next best claim on the throne, inherited her father s earldom of Salisbury and survived well into the next reign. Another method Henry used to secure his throne was to carry out his promise to marry Elizabeth of York, daughter and heir of King Edward IV. The marriage took place on January 18, 1486 at Westminster. This unified the warring houses, and gave him a greater claim to the throne due to Elizabeth s line of descent though there is evidence that Edward was born illegitimate .
Name: King Henry Vii Tudor Of England Note
Born: 28 Jan 1456-1457 at Castle, Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Married: 18 Jan 1485-1486 at Westminster, , , England
Died: 21 Apr 1509 at Shene Near, Richmond, Surrey, England
Father: Earl Edmund Tudor Of Richmond
Mother: Duchess Margaret Beaufort Of Suffolk
Name: Queen Elizabeth Plantagenet Of England Note
Born: Abt 1464 at Westminster, Palace, London, England
Died: 11 Feb 1502-1503 at Tower Of London, , Middlesex, England
Other Spouses: Thomas Lumley
Father: King Edward Iv Plantagenet Of England
Mother: Queen Elizabeth Grey Woodville Of England
Name: Duke Edmund Tudor Of Somerset
Born: 21 Feb 1498-1499 at Greenwich, , Palace, England
Died: 19 Jun 1500 at Bishops Hatfield, , Herts, England
Name: Prince Edward Tudor Of England
Born: (suppressed / living)
Name: Princess Katherine Tudor Of England
Born: 2 Feb 1502-1503 at Tower Of London, , , England
Died: 1503 at , , , England
Name: Princess Mary Tudor Of England
Born: 18 Mar 1495-1496 at Richmond Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England
Died: 25 Jun 1533 at Westhorpe Hall, , Suffolk, England
Husband: Charles Brandon Duke Of Suffolk
Name: Prince Arthur Tudor Prince Of Wales
Born: 20 Sep 1486 at St. Swithin s, Priory, Winchester, England
Died: 2 Apr 1502 at Ludlow Castle, , ,
Wife: Queen Catherine Of Aragon Of England
Name: Queen Margaret Tudor Of Scotland
Born: 29 Nov 1489 at Westminster, , Middlesex, England
Died: 24 Nov 1541 at Methven Castle, , Perthshire, Scotland
Husband: King James Iv Stuart Of Scotland
Name: King Henry Viii Tudor Of England
Born: 28 Jun 1491 at Greenwich Palace, , , England
Died: 28 Jan 1546-1547 at Whitehall, Westminster, Middlesex, England
Wife: Elizabeth Blount Countess Of Lincoln
Name: Princess Elizabeth Tudor Of England
Born: 2 Jul 1492 at Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England
Died: 14 Sep 1494 at Eltham Palace, , , England
2). From Wikipedia http en.wikipedia.org wiki Elizabeth of York Elizabeth of York February 11, 1466February 11, 1503 was the Queen Consort of King Henry VII of England, who she married in 1486, and the mother of King Henry VIII. She was born at Westminster, the eldest child of King Edward IV and his own Queen Consort Elizabeth Woodville who both had children from earlier relationships . Following her father s death and the accession to the throne of his brother Richard III, scurrilous rumours circulated that Richard intended to marry her as soon as his wife, the ailing Anne Neville, was dead. There is no surviving evidence for such a plan, although Sir George Buck later claimed to have uncovered a letter from Elizabeth now lostwhich showed she was party to it. It has been suggested that the rumours were started by Elizabeth s mother Elizabeth Woodville as part of her campaign to put her daughter on the throne if Richard had been able to obtain a dispensation from the churchto marry his niece, it would have prevented her marrying the chief threat to his throne, Henry Tudor. Elizabeth Woodville arranged to marry her daughter to Tudor if he could overthrow King Richard, which he did at the Battle of Bosworth Field on August 22, 1485, becoming King Henry VII. But he was in no hurry to marry Elizabeth of York, although he had publicly taken a sacred oath to do so before he had left France to invade England. On October 30, Henry was crowned, but still delayed his wedding. Finally Parliament itself, on behalf of the people, petitioned him to carry out his promise, and on January 18, 1486, the marriage took place. It was not until November 25, 1487, more than a year after their first child, Arthur, was born on September 20, 1486, that Elizabeth was crowned queen. It was a relatively successful marriage, all things considered. They had seven or possibly eight, but only seven are shown in the commemorative picture painted in about 1509 children Arthur, Prince of Wales September 20, 1486 April 2, 1502 . Margaret Tudor November 28, 1489 October 18, 1541 . Henry VIII of England June 28, 1491 January 28, 1547 . Elizabeth Tudor July 2, 1492 September 14, 1495 . Mary Tudor March 18, 1496 June 25, 1533 . Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset February 21, 1499 June 19, 1500 . Edward Tudor. Unknown dates of birth and death. Suspected to be a mistaken name for Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset. Katherine Tudor February 2, 1503 February 2, 1503 . The eldest son and heir to the throne, Arthur, Prince of Wales, died after marrying Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. This seems to have been the motive for Elizabeth to become pregnant the last time, in order to strengthen the succession. Elizabeth died, on her 37th birthday, a few days after giving birth to her last child, Katherine Tudor, who also died. Although Henry VII was known to be a very thrifty person, he threw his wife a splendid funeral. She is buried in Westminster Abbey in the Lady Chapel. Later, her husband Henry was buried beside her. Elizabeth of York is the only English Queen to have been a wife, daughter, sister, niece and mother to an English King. Elizabeth is also the basis for the picture of queens in a deck of cards. Her second son Henry followed his father as king, her eldest daughter Margaret married James IV of Scotland, and her youngest child Mary married Louis XII of France.