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1). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Henry VIII 28 June 149128 January 1547 was King of England and Lord of Ireland later King of Ireland from 22 April 1509 until his death. He was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. He is famous for having been married six times, and also wielded the most untrammeled power of any British monarch. Notable events to occur during his reign included the establishment of the Church of England, the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the union of England and Wales. Several significant pieces of legislation were enacted during Henry VIII s reign. They included several Acts which severed the English Church from the Roman Catholic Church, the Act of Union 1536 which united England and Wales into one nation , the Buggery Act 1533 the first anti homosexual enactment in England , and the Witchcraft Act 1542 which punished invoking or conjuring an evil spirit with death . Henry is known to have been an avid gambler and dice player during his lifetime. He excelled at sportespecially real tennisduring his youth. He was also an accomplished musician and poet according to legend, he wrote the popular folk song Greensleeves.He was also involved in the construction and improvement of several buildings, including King s College Chapel, Hampton Court Palace, Nonsuch Palace and Westminster Abbey.
Name: King Henry Viii Tudor Of England Note
Born: 28 Jun 1491 at Greenwich Palace, , , England
Married: 25 Jan 1532-1533 at Westminster, , London, England
Died: 28 Jan 1546-1547 at Whitehall, Westminster, Middlesex, England
Other Spouses: Elizabeth Blount Countess Of Lincoln
Anne Of Cleves Princess Of Kleve
Anne Of Cleves
Queen Catherine Of Aragon Of England
Catherine Parr Queen Of England
Father: King Henry Vii Tudor Of England
Mother: Queen Elizabeth Plantagenet Of England
Name: Queen Anne Boleyn Of England Note
Born: Abt 1501 at Blickling Hall, , Norfolk, England
Died: 19 May 1536 at Tower Of London, , London, England
Father: Earl Thomas Boleyn Of Wiltshire
Mother: Countess Elizabeth Howard Of Wiltshire
Name: Queen Elizabeth I Tudor Of England
Born: 7 Sep 1533 at Greenwich Palace, , London, England
Died: 23 Mar 1603 at Richmond Palace, , London, England
Name: Henry Tudor
2). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Anne Boleyn, Marchioness of Pembroke about 1507 May 19, 1536 was the second wife and queen consort of Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Henry s marriage to her was the cause of considerable political and religious upheaval, she was dubbed the most controversial woman ever to be Queen of England . Her life has been the subject of numerous biographies, novels, motion pictures, plays and operas. Childhood Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and 1st Earl of Ormonde, and Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde née Lady Elizabeth Howard , daughter of the 2nd Duke of Norfolk. The year of Anne s birth is uncertain, but thecircumstantial evidence that survives would indicate that it was summer of 1501. Other dates suggested included anywhere from 1499 to 1512, with the most probable being between 1505 and 1507. Later tradition would preach that the Boleyns were practically middle class, but recent research has proven that Anne Boleyn was born a great lady . Her great grandparents included a Lord Mayor of London, a duke, an earl, two aristocratic ladies and a knight. She was certainly far better born than either Jane Seymour or Catherine Parr, two of Henry s other wives. Anne s father secured a place for her with Margaret, Archduchess of Austria and daughter of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, for Anne to be educated in the Netherlands where it is believed she lived from the spring of 1513 to the autumn of 1514. This wasfollowed by some years in France, until 1521, where she was lady in waiting to Queen Claude of France. In the Queen s household, she completed her study of French as well as acquiring a thorough knowledge of French culture and etiquette. For all practical purposes, she was a Frenchwoman. Anne s European education ended in the winter of 1521, when she was summoned back to England on her father s orders, sailing from Calais around January 1522. On her return to England, Anne apparently became an attendant of Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII s formidable Spanish queen, who was still much respected but whose good looks and youthful charm were fading. During this time, there was much talk of marrying Anne to one of her cousins, the son of Sir Piers Butler. This was, however, cancelled, for uncertain reasons. It is presumed that Anne s father was secretly against the marriage, which had been engineeredby the king s chief minister Thomas Wolsey who had shown himself to be the enemy of the Boleyns in previous years. Around 1522, Anne began being courted by Lord Henry Percy, the son of the earl of Northumberland. Some say that they became lovers, while others maintain that it was just a simple courtship. The latter was probably true, for Anne was far too intelligent to waste what value she had on a few nights passion that were to avail her nothing. Her elder sister, Mary Boleyn had been sexually adventurous in France, and Anne had been deeply humiliated as a result. Probably in the spring of 1523, Anne and Percy were secretly betrothed. Lord Henry s father refused to sanction the marriage when he heard of it from Cardinal Wolsey, who was possibly acting upon the King s instructions to leave Anne free for him. Anne was sent from court to Hever Castle in Kent. It is not known how long she remained away from court, although she was certainly back by mid 1525. At Shrovetide 1526 Henry began the serious pursuit of Anne Boleyn. Anne s elder sister, Mary had previously been King Henry s mistress and may have borne him a child, and gossips believed their mother Elizabeth Boleyn had been Henry s mistress too, though Henry denied it and it seems extremely unlikely. Anne refused to become the King s mistress, and she effectively dodged his advances for over a year. Feminist historians now believe Anne was suffering as a silent victim of 16th century sexual harassment. Henry proposed marriage to her sometime in 1527probably around New Year , and after some hesitation, she agreed. It is often thought that Henry s infatuation with Anne led him to seek a way to annul his existing marriage. However there is good evidence to suggest that Henry may well have made the decision to set aside his marriage with Catherine of Aragon solely because of her failure to bear him a male heir. He believed this was essential to prevent the collapse of the Tudor dynasty which had only been secured by his father Henry VII of England on winning the Wars of the Roses in 1485. Anne became the victim of a public hate campaign, mobilised by Catherine s supporters, and in 1531 a crowd of 8,000 women marched through the streets of London in an attempt to lynch her. During this period, Anne played an enormous role in England s international position, by solidifying the French alliance. She established an excellent rapport with the French ambassador, de la Pommeraye, who was captivated by her. When, in 1532, Henry gave her the title Marchioness of Pembroke, it was the first time a woman had ever been created a peer in her own right. Anne s family also profited. Her father became Earl of Ormonde and Wiltshire and her brother George Boleyn was made Viscount Rochford. Thanks to Anne s intervention, her sister Mary received an annual pension of £100 and her son Henry Carey received a top quality education in a prestigious Cistercian monastery. Anne and Henry finally slept together for the first time in late 1532 at Calais, and her reasons for submitting at this point are difficult to fathom. One historian has suggested that was probably because she had, by this point, fallen in love with the King. Other suggestions are more plausible. Joanna Denny and Dr. David Starkey both argue that there was a secret wedding between the royal couple late in 1532. Denny, in her book Anne Boleyn A Life of England s Tragic Queen argues that the marriage took place in Calais, and Dr. David Starkey argues that it took place once the couple landed at Dover, in England. Their arguments are convincing, and it helps explain the physical consummation of the couple s relationship, after so many years of resistance on Anne s part. Anne s personality was complex, and it has been greatly distorted by those opposed to her marriage and religious views. She was a devout Christian in the new tradition of Renaissance Humanism calling her a Protestant would be too strong . She was also avery loyal woman who gave generously to charity and, contrary to popular myth, was extremely emotional. In her youth she was sweet and cheerful, enjoyed gambling, drinking wine and gossiping. She was also brave and charismatic and her personal motto loosely translated as This will be, no matter who grumbles! She was also well educated, clever and charming. The French ambassador, de la Pommeraye, was completely captivated by her and paid tribute to her formidable intellect and influence over English foreign policy. The diplomat John Barlow was devoted to her, and spied for her in Rome. Later in life this ability to attract fanatical male devotion back fired spectacularly when she found herself the object of feverish unrequieted love from a Dutch musicianin her household called Marc Smeaton. Yet Anne could also be extravagant, neurotic and bad tempered. She was embroiled in numerous arguments with prominent figures including her uncle the duke of Norfolk and the King s brother in law. On January 25, 1533, before announcing the decision that his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, was invalid, he secretly wed Anne, either at York Place or at the Palace of Westminster. The reason for this probably second marriage was because Anne had become pregnant since the first, and there needed to be another to ensure the child s unquestioned legitimacy. Anne s coronation in May of that year she was crowned on June 1 had been marked by the people s hostility, and they had refused to remove their hats as a sign of respect for their new queen. When asked what she had made of London at her coronation, Annereplied, I liked the City well enough, but I saw few caps in the air and heard few tongues. In September, after a difficult pregnancy, Anne gave birth to the future Elizabeth I at Greenwich. Henry was reasonably pleased and believed that he and Anne could always have another child, even if the first was a girl. Throughout her time as Queen, Anne patronised numerous religious scholars, and saved the life of a French philosopher, Nicolas Bourbon, who had been sentenced to death by the Inquisition in Paris. It was said, that every reformist bishop in England at that time owed his position to Queen Anne s influence. Her court was generally regarded as extremely cultured and merry, and one observer remarked that past time in the queen s chambers was never more. Unfortunately for Anne, her next three pregnancies all ended in miscarriage or stillbirth. The last of these pregnancies resulted in a stillborn male child born in January 1536. Anne s demise In May, 1536, Anne was accused of having used witchcraft to trap Henry into marriage and to entice five men to enter into adulterous affairs with her being a whore of creating competition and jealousy between the five of afflicting the king with bodilyharm and of conspiring to effect his death treason. The men alleged to have been involved in adultery were a groom of the Privy Chamber Marc Smeaton Anne s own brother Lord George Rochford, Henry Norris, Francis Weston and William Brereton. Annes brother was effectively held to have been the father of the stillborn child. It is now generally accepted that none of the charges was valid although that has not stopped the theory re surfacing in several sensationalist historical romances. There are several theories about the events leading up to these accusations The first is that Henry had been disenchanted with Anne for some time, but was reluctant to divorce her while his first wife Catherine was alive, because there was a large faction in England that believed Catherine s marriage was still binding. But in January 1536 Catherine died of cancer, reducing the potential backlash. However several people who had met Henry and Anne in October 1535 reported them to have been getting on well. The royal marriage had certainly shown signs of strain even as early as 1534 but this strain cannot be regarded as the cause of the queen s downfall without incorporating other factors. The second is that Thomas Cromwell used Anne s miscarriage as a lever to persuade Henry to remove her, taking the opportunity to plot to remove five of his own political enemies in the process. More recently David Starkey has suggested that Henry had recently fallen in love with Jane Seymour and so moved quickly to fabricate charges to remove Anne so he could remarry again. The final theory, argued by Retha Warnicke, is that Anne s stillborn child of January 1536 had been deformed, provoking terror and disgust in the King. It was widely believed at the time that deformities resulted from illicit sexual acts by the parentsand obviously Henry could not be seen to be responsible. By accusing Anne of incest and adultery, his paternity of the deformed stillborn child could largely be disproved. It is also suggested that those executed for adultery were chosen because they wereknown libertines, and that under questioning Anne s maids had identified them as having visited Anne during the period from October 1533 and December 1535. This theory, however, is almost totally dependent on circumstantial evidence and there is almost no supporting evidence to suggest that the royal foetus was deformed. And Henry s supposed impotence as a result of the shock has been much exaggerated, since he was still capable of consummating a marriage in 1543. The truth is probably that Henry s disaffection with his strong willed wife pushed him into the arms of the doe eyed and manipulative Jane Seymour, who was the pawn of Anne s many political enemies. Anne had quarelled with Thomas Cromwell, the chief minister, and he moved swiftly to extract revenge. These enemies capitalised on her last miscarriage and Catherine s death, and with the help of Thomas Cromwell and the secret support of the king, engineered an elaborate plot to bring the queen to the scaffoldalong with several of her strategic allies at court. Anne was arrested on May 2, 1536, and taken to the Tower of London. In her early days at the Tower she seems to have suffered a minor nervous breakdown, lapsing from fits of hysterical laughter to uncontrollable weeping. She is rumoured to have written aletter to her husband remonstrating against this unworthy stain on her reputation, and pleading with him to spare the five men accused with her and to remember their daughter Elizabeth. On the evidence of Marc Smeaton s false confession, obtained by torture, Anne was convicted at her trial on May 15. She behaved with remarkable courage, and after her conviction told her judges that whilst she could believe they had good reasons for condemning her to death they were not the reasons produced in the courtroom. On May 17 her marriage to Henry was annulled, though the arguments used aren t known since the records were later destroyed. Anne found spiritual peace during her last two days on Earth, and told her jailer that she had confidence in God s mercy and believed that she would go to Heaven. She swore twice on the Blessed Sacrament that she was innocent of all the charges they had accused her of. On May 19, 1536 Anne was beheaded in the Tower of London. Before her death, she joked that, I heardsay the executioner was very good, and I have a little neck. The executioner, an expert swordsman from France, was reputed to be an excellent and quickexecutioner. Anne selected a dark dress for her execution, with a crimson underskirt. On the scaffold she forgave those who had brought about her death, and prayed for her husband. She was blindfolded, and whilst she was kneeling her head came off with asingle stroke. The chief mourner at her funeral was Lady Margaret Lee. Henry married Jane Seymour on May 30. In 1876 when the Chapel Royal of St. Peter ad Vincula 1 http www.camelotintl.com tower site tower chapel.html in the Tower of London, where Anne was interred was extensively restored, one of the bodies exhumed, examined, and re interred was identified as hers.